Posts for: July, 2011
We know from research extending back to the 1930s that very small amounts of fluoride in drinking water can significantly reduce dental caries (cavities) with no negative health effects. Fluoridated water is currently available to 70% of all Americans. However, we have also learned that excess fluoride from combined sources can result in staining of teeth called “fluorosis.”
What is the optimum fluoride concentration for healthy teeth?
A fluoride concentration of about 0.7-1.20 milligrams per liter (mg/L), or .7 to 1.2 ppm (parts per million), in the water supply seems to be optimum for dental health without causing negative effects. This concentration is about the same as a grain of salt in a gallon of water. An amount of 1 ppm was originally considered the safe standard, but since today Americans have access to more sources of fluoride than they did when water fluoridation was first introduced, the recommended amount has been reduced to .7 mg/L or .7 ppm.
The crucial amount to measure is the quantity of fluoride that is swallowed. Generally, the optimal level of fluoride per day from all sources is thought to be about .06 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, or about a sixth of the weight of a grain of salt for every two pounds of body weight.
It is probably not possible to calculate the precise amount of fluoride each person ingests per day, because the amount depends on more than just the amount of tapwater you drink. Bottled waters, soft drinks and juices also contain fluoride. Breast milk and cow's milk are very low in fluoride, but infant formulas may contain higher levels. Foods found to have high fluoride content include teas, dry infant cereals and processed chicken, fish and seafood products. Toothpaste can contribute to a child's total fluoride intake if the child swallows it.
What are the effects of too much fluoride?
Dental fluorosis produces a “mottling” of the outer coating of the tooth, the enamel. Mottling may show as staining ranging from small white striations to stained pitting and severe browning of the enamel surface.
The first six to eight years of life is the most risky time for development of dental fluorosis. Parents need to monitor their children to make sure they use small amounts of fluoride toothpaste (an amount the size of a pea on the brush is recommended). Watch for white spots on the enamel (hard outside coating) of your child's teeth. White spots from fluorosis mean it is time to pay attention to how much fluoride your child is getting from various sources, and to cut back on the total. You want fluoride's protection against cavities for your child's teeth, without the unsightliness of dental fluorosis from too much fluoride.
Contact us today to schedule an appointment to discuss your questions about fluoride. You can also learn more by reading the Dear Doctor magazine articles “Fluoride & Fluoridation in Dentistry” and “New Fluoride Recommendations.”
If you asked a room full of parents about their opinions on thumb sucking and pacifiers, the odds are good that you would get a wide variety of opinions. The truth is that this habit is a perfectly normal behavior in babies and young children; however, it is something that parents and caregivers should monitor. This is why we want to share a few basic myths and facts to set the record straight.
So how early does thumb sucking start?
It is interesting to note that thumb sucking for some babies actually starts before birth. This fact is proven quite often when expectant mothers “see” their unborn child sucking fingers or a thumb during a routine mid to later term sonogram. Sucking for babies is absolutely normal; it provides them with a sense of security. It is also a way they test, make contact and learn about their world.
At what age should a parent be concerned if their child still sucks a pacifier, finger or a thumb?
Recent studies have shown that if a sucking habit continues after the age of two, there may be some long-term changes in the mouth that have can have a negative impact on jaw development and/or with the upper front teeth. (It can cause these upper front teeth to become “bucked” or protrude forward towards the lips.) The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry recommends that parents and caregivers encourage children to cease this habit by about age three.
Do children ever stop this habit on their own?
Absolutely! If left alone, many children will naturally stop sucking their fingers or thumb between the ages of two and four. The main points to remember are that sucking habits are totally natural and should stop on their own. You should not make it a problem unnecessarily. If, however, your child is getting older and still seems dependant upon this habit, feel free to contact us today to schedule an appointment for your child or to discuss your specific questions about pacifiers and finger or thumb sucking. You can also learn more about this topic by continuing to read the Dear Doctor magazine article “Thumb Sucking in Children.”
If you are pleased with your smile except for that one front tooth that appears darker, then we have good news for you. Often a tooth appears darker as a result of trauma that may have occurred years ago. Your tooth may need root canal treatment or may have already had root canal treatment in the past. Regardless, you can whiten this tooth via a process called internal bleaching. And as the name suggests, the tooth can be bleached from the inside out. Here's a brief summary of how this entire process works:
- Performing an x-ray exam: The first step is to take a radiograph (x-ray) to make sure that your root canal filling is intact adequately sealing the root canal and the surrounding bone is healthy.
- Making an access hole: To apply the bleaching agent, a small hole will need to be made in the back of your tooth to apply the bleach. However, before doing that, the area must be thoroughly cleaned and irrigated.
- Sealing above the root canal filling: This step is critical to prevent the bleach from leaking into the root canal space.
- Applying the bleach: To obtain the whitening needed, it typically requires between one and four office visits for additional bleaching.
- Applying a permanent restoration: Once your tooth has lightened to the desired color, a permanent filling will be placed over the small hole to seal your tooth's dentin. This is then covered with tooth-colored composite resin (filling material) so that the access hole is undetectable to the naked eye.
To learn more about this procedure and see amazing before and after images, continue reading the Dear Doctor article, “Whitening Traumatized Teeth.” Or, you can contact us to discuss your questions or to schedule an appointment.
Every parent, caregiver, coach, sports fan and especially injured party dreads the moment when an injury to the mouth occurs during a sporting event. The first thought observers have after looking closely to see if it is their child or someone they know is, “I hope someone knows what to do!” Do you know what to do in case of a dental sports emergency? Test your dental injury IQ with this simple, quick quiz. The answers are listed at the bottom of this article.
Dental Injury IQ
- If a tooth (including its root) is totally knocked out, what can you safely store it in while finding a dentist within 5 minutes of the injury?
- Water or salt water
- Milk (preferably cold)
- Inside the cheek (mouth) of the injured person
- All of the above
- True or False: Immediately following the injury, fresh cold tap water or bottled water is the best way to remove debris from where a tooth was knocked out.
- If a tooth has shifted from its original position following an injury, you should...
- See a dentist within 5 minutes
- See a dentist within 6 hours
- See a dentist within 12 hours
- Only see a dentist if the tooth is not better in a few days
- True or False: You treat a knocked out baby tooth in the same manner as you do a permanent tooth.
- The most important thing to do to save a tooth that has been completely knocked out of the mouth is toÃ¢Â€Â¦
- See a dentist as soon as possible
- Replant the tooth within 5 minutes
- Stop the bleeding before re-planting the tooth
- Rinse the tooth with fresh, clean water
1) d = all of the above, 2) true, 3) b = see a dentist within 6 hours, 4) false – baby teeth are typically not replanted, 5) b = replant the tooth within 5 minutes
Want To Learn More?
Contact us today to discuss your questions or to schedule an appointment. You can also learn more about treating dental injuries when you read the Dear Doctor article, “The Field-Side Guide To Dental Injuries.” Or, you can download a FREE, pocket-sized guide for managing dental injuries.